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MLA Style Writing Guide: Other Sources

Online Videos

"How to Find Articles on Theology Topics." YouTube, uploaded by Liberty University, 29 Oct. 2014,

Digital Files

Some of the below citations are based on example documents rather than published documents. 


Doe, Jane. "US History Presentation." HIUS 221, File last modified on 9 June 2015, 

Microsoft PowerPoint file. Blackboard

Smith, John. "US History Lecture Notes." 2015. PDF. 


If the document is a Word, PowerPoint, or other type of document that doesn't have a firm publication date, use the last modified date and write "File last modified on Day Month Year."

File types can include: Microsoft Word file, Microsoft PowerPoint file, PDF, JPEG file, MP3 file, XML file, etc.  

Citing a Source within Another Source

If possible, it is always best to find the original source if you wish to cite a quote that appears in another source. However, if you cannot find the original source, it may be necessary to cite the quote from the indirect source. In these cases, specify who the author of the quote is in the same sentence as the quote, then list the indirect source in your in-text citation. 


Britch and Lewis write that Tom Joad "prefigures the virtual death of his brother Noah, whose knowledge of the outside world and modern machinery is zero" (qtd. in Fields 58). 



Works Cited

Fields, Ronald. "The Complexities of Noah in The Grapes of Wrath." The Steinbeck Review, vol. 6, no 1,

2009, 52-61. JSTOR

Accessed 14 Aug. 2015.