Why care about citations?
Citations, and citation styles, allow the reader to understand where you got the information in your paper. Citations show how you chose to incorporate that information into your writing about a topic.
They are the equivalent to showing your work when performing a mathematical or scientific equation. Citations show how you arrived at a particular conclusion or argument through building a body of evidence and examples in your research process.
Citations are meant to give a path to show how you approached your research question and gathered the sources, ideas and support for the argument advanced by your paper.
Citation styles may seem difficult to master at first, but with some practice, you will soon begin to master the citation style(s) of your discipline. Also there are many citation tools, such as the "Cite" button available in many of the library's databases, to assist you in the citation process. The Citation Resources tab of this guide includes a link to RefWorks Citation Manager which is available for free to LU students.
APA stands for American Psychological Association and is most commonly used in social sciences such as Business, Nursing, and Psychology.
o Print books: Author’s last name, First Initial. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capitalize first letter of the word after the colon and italicize. City, State: Publisher.
o Article from a database: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page range. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/
o Article on a website: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/
To see the format for individual references (e.g., books, journal articles, etc.) please see the APA Handbook, 7th edition or view the library’s APA Guide here: http://libguides.liberty.edu/APAguide
Online Writing Center APA Style Guide: https://www.liberty.edu/academics/casas/academicsuccess/index.cfm?PID=11960
There is also a sample paper of the APA Style provided by the Online Writing Center.
MLA Style is a citation style published by the Modern Language Association of America (MLA). It is commonly used in academic writing in liberal arts and humanities disciplines. MLA Style employs both in-text citations and a Works Cited section for references.
Quoted and paraphrased material taken from the MLA Handbook, 8th ed.
The print manual for MLA Style is the MLA Handbook, 9th edition. For further help with footnotes, references, and general formatting, please see the Handbook or view the following resources:
Turabian is a citation style closely related to Chicago Style. It is commonly used in the Divinity, Arts, and Business disciplines. Turabian is notable for its use of footnotes for in-text citations. Footnotes are used in conjunction with reference pages.
When you first employ a source in a paper, you will use a detailed footnote for the citation. If you needed to cite the same source again, however, you would then use a shortened version for further footnotes. The initial detailed footnote contains full reference information and relevant page numbers. Shortened footnotes, on the other hand, typically only contain the authors' last names, a shortened title, and the page numbers. In the following examples, the first footnote shows the detailed version, while the second footnote shows the shortened version.
Detailed Footnote: Alexandra Bogren, “Gender and Alcohol: The Swedish Press Debate,” Journal of Gender Studies 20, no. 2 (June 2011): 156.
Shortened Footnote: Bogren, “Gender and Alcohol,” 157.
For a journal article found online, include an access date and URL or permalink. For articles that give a DOI number include "http://dx.doi.org/" before the number.
Detailed Footnote: Tonya Armstrong, "African-American Congregational Care and Counseling: Transcending Universal and Culturally-Specific Barriers." The Journal Of Pastoral Care & Counseling 70, no. 2 (2016): 120-121, accessed December 13, 2017, http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1542305016634666.
Shortened Footnote: Armstrong, "African-American Congregational Care", 120-121.
Detailed Footnote: Malcolm Gladwell, The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference (Boston: Little, Brown, 2000), 64–65.
Shortened Footnote: Gladwell, Tipping Point, 71.
Detailed Footnote: Peter Morey and Amina Yaqin, Framing Muslims: Stereotyping and Representation after 9/11 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011), 52.
Shortened Footnote: Morey and Yaqin, Framing Muslims, 60–61.
If the eBook was found online, include an access date and URL/permalink. If you used the library databases to locate the eBook, you may use the name of the database instead of the URL. If there are no page numbers, you can include the chapter or section number.
Detailed Footnote: Joseph P. Quinlan, The Last Economic Superpower: The Retreat of Globalization, the End of American Dominance, and What We Can Do about It (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010), 211, accessed December 8, 2012, ProQuest Ebrary.
Shortened Footnote: Quinlan, Last Economic Superpower, 211.
A Turabian bibliography should be alphabetized by the first word in each entry. The first line is not indented, but subsequent lines are indented. Please note that the following examples do not include proper indention formatting.
Bogren, Alexandra. “Gender and Alcohol: The Swedish Press Debate.” Journal of Gender Studies 20, no. 2 (June 2011): 155–69.
For a journal article found online, include an access date and URL. For articles that give a DOI number include "http://dx.doi.org/" before the number.
Brown, Campbell. “Consequentialize This.” Ethics 121, no. 4 (July 2011): 749–71. Accessed December 1, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/660696.
Gladwell, Malcolm. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. Boston: Little, Brown, 2000.
Morey, Peter, and Amina Yaqin. Framing Muslims: Stereotyping and Representation after 9/11. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011.
If the ebook was found online, include an access date and URL/permalink. If you used the library databases to locate the ebook, you may use the name of the database instead of the URL.
Quinlan, Joseph P. The Last Economic Superpower: The Retreat of Globalization, the End of American Dominance, and What We Can Do about It. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Accessed December 8, 2012. ProQuest Ebrary.
The print manuals for Chicago and Turabian are the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition and A Manual for Writers, 8th edition, respectively. For further help with footnotes, references, and general formatting, please see the Chicago/Turabian Manuals or view the following resources:
The American Medical Association (AMA) Style is a citation style mainly used in medical publications and in various health fields. The current print handbook is the AMA Manual of Style, 10th edition.
Bluebook Style is a citation style commonly employed in legal publications and case citations in the United States legal system. The current print handbook is the Bluebook, 20th edition.