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Academic Affairs for Athletics Research Guide: Research/Writing

This research guide features resources and strategies for finding research information for our athletes.

Background for Reseach

Remember that you can use a Dictionary and Encyclopedia to assist with getting more information about your topic. Please refer to the Encyclopedias and Dictionaries tab for more background resources.

The Research Process

Developing a Research Question

Retrieved 8/26/2018 at

Avoid Plagiarism

Remember the importance of plagiarism.  If you use someone else's work, cite it.  Review the Plagiarism tutorial for more information. 

  • When using an image for a paper or PowerPoint, always give the photographer/creator credit. This will avoid plagiarism. 
  • For instance, when citing in APA use the below example.

Image citation when you are the author/creator is the following:

Author. (Year it was created). Title of Work (or Type of work).


Potts, Barbara. (2021). Levi Jeans (own photo)


Electronic Image is the following:

Author (Role of Author). (Year image was created). Title of work [Type of work], Retrieved from URL
(address of the website)


Kulbis, M. (Photographer). (2006). Men pray [Photograph], Retrieved from


Electronic Image (No Author)

Title of work [Type of work]. (Year image was created). Retrieved from URL (address of the website)

Electronic Image (No Author, No Title, No Date)

[Subject and type of work]. Retrieved from URL (address of the website)


[Untitled photograph of a baby chimpanzee]. Retrieved from


  • The image in the paper should have a caption under it saying, Levi Jeans by Barbara Potts, Photographer (or creator) or the description of the image and author's name. There isn't a standard format for a caption under a picture but it should be labeled to help the reader understand what the image is related to in the paper and who created it. 


The library has numerous tutorials to help navigate the databases and learn effective search strategies.


Writing Center Information

The Writing Center is available to assist with your writing needs.  You may schedule an appointment with a writing coach to assist with questions you may have.  

  • Formatting assistance in Turabian, AMA, APA, and MLA. 
  • Writing Aids
  • Video Tutorials
  • Web Resources 
  • LUO Academic Support

Highlights in APA 7th Updates at LU

This information contains updates for the new APA 7th Edition (APA-7) formatting style. These are highlights of the changes to APA 7th Edition for undergraduate students. This does not serve as a comprehensive list of all the changes. Please refer to the Academic Success Center Writing Center APA Format Quick Guide for additional guidance. The sections listed are from the APA-7 book for reference and location.

  • As listed in the APA-7, Student Version guidelines will be used for undergraduate students.  Professional Version guidelines will be used for graduate/doctoral students.
  • The third person must be used in most student papers.  Students should refrain from using first person (I, me, we, us, our) and second person (you, yours) in academic papers unless the assignment clearly permits it such as a reflection paper (section 4.16)
  • No running head or abstract is needed in undergraduate papers (section 2.3 and 2.8)
  • If the Bible is used in a paper, the writer must now include the Bible in the reference and its citations must include the editor's details and year (section 8.28).
  • Hyperlinks should be live but they can either be blue or black text if going to be read online (section 9.35). 
  • Annotated Bibliography sample (section 9.51)
  • For the Font, LU recommends that students use 12-point Times New Romans font for the body of all academic papers. 
  • Five heading levels. All levels are now bold and in title case (capitalize each major word, usually those with four or more letters).  Start with level 1 and work down from that. Under Level 1, you would either have two+ Level 2 headings or none at all (just one big section in paragraphs before the next Level 1 section) (section 2.27).

Example of headings:

                                                      Level 1 Heading (centered, bold)

Level 2 Heading (left-justified, bold)

Level 3 Heading (left-justified, italicized, bold)

                   Level 4 Heading (indented 1/2 inch, bold, not used very often)

                   Level 5 Heading (indented 1/2 inch, italicized, bold, not used very often)

All highlights are taken from UG Sample Paper.  Please refer to the Writing Center webpage for the LU edition to APA 7th Edition.  Please review assignments, your professor will advise you on the requirements they prefer for the assignment.  

This is a good resource for APA formatting assistance. 

APA Reference Entries

APA In-Text Citations

In-Text Citations for APA-7 

Scroll down to the In-Text Citation section.