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Religion & Philosophy Research Guide: Greek & Hebrew

This research guide features resources and strategies for finding information and conducting research related to Religion and Philosophy.

A note on language tools

Students researching in the original Greek and Hebrew text of Scripture will want to consult several of these language tools.

Lexicons are like dictionaries; they briefly define the words and offer a semantic domain for possible uses. Theological Dictionaries are more expansive; they offer an extended treatment of the word and its theological use. 

Please note that not every language tool is available online at this time. 
However, requests can be made through Inter Library Loan for specific sections of the language tools. Just provide the library with the particular Greek or Hebrew word under study, and a librarian can scan that section and email it to you.

Greek Language Tools

Hebrew Language Tools

Online Language Tools

There are many Online and Open Access tools that are helpful for basic Bible Study.

Try a few of the Open Access sites as an Interlinear to locate the Greek or Hebrew word behind the English translations. Many of these will provide simple definitions using older language tools.  

And also consider looking up a Greek or Hebrew word in some of the Online dictionaries provided by the JFL. Many of these tools are edited by scholars, although they are formatted for use by anyone.

* When writing papers for LU research projects, be sure understand what level of resource is required. For example, a first-year introduction to the Bible course may allow for the older or popular-level lexicons (dictionaries), while a graduate or upper-level course will require the more scholarly versions (pictured above). Not every resource on these Open Access pages will fulfill the scholarly requirements for certain course assignments, even if they are beneficial for individual growth and other ministries. 

Also consider looking up the selected term in an exegetical commentary, available through the JFL online catalog. These commentaries often provide a summary of the word from the typical lexicons.

The following websites offer helpful Bible study tools for personal and devotion use, and even some helps with the original languages. 

The following language tools are available online through the JFL collection. 

Many of these tools are considered popular level, as opposed to the standard scholarly resources pictured above. Other items here are simply earlier versions, or abridgements, of the more academic and up-to-date materials. For scans of the more academic resources, please send a request to the Interlibrary Loan service for the entry on your particular Greek or Hebrew Word.